PFAS remediation methods

In this article, we will discuss PFAS remediation in the UK. We will focus on both water and soil treatment. PFAS is worrying because it cannot be washed off. First, the article reviews the chemical structure of the PFAS compounds, remedies, and innovative methods. We will also discuss the UK government’s response to PFAS contamination.

What are PFAS Chemicals?

In today’s industry, polyfluoroalkyl substances are Man-made chemicals.

The more common abbreviation for these chemical substances is PFAS. Their unique properties and popularity have made them prevalent. Some PFAS characteristics comprise being unable to dissolve in water, oils or grease. Consequently, many industries find them quite valuable in their operations. Various production units have exploited such materials in their making. Some of these products include:

  • Non-stick cookware
  • Waterproofing fabrics
  • Firefighting foams
  • Food packaging
  • Electronics

PFAS impact on human health and ecosystems

Environmental persistence is one element that makes PFAS stand out. Some of these fears surround the implications that PFAS has damaging effects on humans and the environment. Due to their extensive use, they cannot be easily degraded, making them pile up. The buildup occurs in an organism’s soil, water, and body. This leads to prolonged environmental degradation.
PFAS has two main subcategories: PFOA and PFOS.

These subcategories are extensively studied. These studies have always focused on their prevalence and health impacts.

It is imperative to reduce risks related to PFAS chemicals and remediate associated pollution to protect ecosystems and human health.

What are the remediation methods for PFAS in the UK?

PFAS pollution remediation has several practical procedures in the UK. These procedures aim to reduce or even remove such persistent chemicals. Mainly, these processes are focused on soil and water drainage. Here are some of the remediation methods commonly used for PFAS in the UK:

  • Excavation and disposal
  • Soil washing
  • In-situ treatment with amendments
  • Activated carbon filtration
  • Ion exchange
  • Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)
  • Bioremediation
  • Novel technologies and innovations

Choosing the right and effective remediation methods depends on the extent of contamination and site characteristics.

Different compound bases that exist in PFASs also help with selecting the right remediation method. More often, the most suitable solution can only be offered by an on-site approach. This sorts out the complex PFAS contamination. Compliance with regulations is also pivotal for remediation methods in the UK.

John F Hunt Regeneration is dedicated to the provision of viable and environmentally responsible methods for removing the PFASs from groundwater. Our team of engineers and scientists has the know-how to determine how much PFAS contamination there is; they can create and carry out remedial techniques; also monitor the performance of treatment facilities.

Learn more about our groundwater remediation services.

PFAS in Water and Soil

PFAS soil remediation: Techniques for cleanup

Regarding environmental management, PFAS soil remediation is a crucial concern. This aims to reduce soil pollution with such persistent substances. Different clean-up approaches are applied effectively in these case scenarios. Every technique has its own strengths and weaknesses. In the following, we will explore key techniques for PFAS soil remediation:

Excavation and disposal

The excavation process is used to remove PFAS-contaminated soil. Finally, the soil is transferred to a safe site for disposal. The method could be considered adequate for localized contamination. It can also be used in spill sites with high concentrations of PFAS pollution.
The procedure is firmly grounded, having extensive application in different PFAS types. It should be considered that this method may not suit large-scale contamination.

Soil washing

The process of soil washing involves physical and/or chemical methods. Soil washing is a technique for separating and recovering PFAS from soil particles. This method could be applied to the soil with moderate-high levels of PFAS, including both onsite and offsite treatments.
It can also be fine-tuned for different PFAS compounds and used in most soil types. It is, however, essential to note that such a procedure is not suitable for minor pollution levels as it also produces wastewater that has to be cleaned.


Breakdown of PFAS in soil by using a bioremediation process involving microorganisms. The sustainability and low-impact approach make it well-suited for more minor PFAS levels and straightforward contamination situations. However, before we conclude this chapter, it is necessary to note that this technique requires a more extended treatment duration.

Thermal treatment

The use of heat is referred to as thermal treatment on contaminated soils. Done in situ or ex-situ, it aims to eliminate PFAS by vaporizing them from the ground. This technique is effective for many PFAS compounds and concentrations, making it suitable for both site-specific and non-site-specific uses, respectively. The application of this method is widespread among different soils owing to its high removal efficiency. All include high energy requirements and site disturbance.


In solidification/stabilization, additional materials are added to PFAS-contaminated soil. Its purpose is to restrict flow or movement and minimise leakage. The technique applies to soils with medium pollution and confinement without removal. However, it ought to be noted that this approach may not work for all PFAS types.


Plants serve as a removal agent for soil based PFAS through phytoremediation. It is effective for low amounts of PFAS. This method is environmentally friendly. However, its effect at high concentrations is doubtful.
There are several approaches where such soil remediation techniques can be employed to reduce PFAS contamination. All methods have their strengths and weaknesses. In that connection, best practices are defined for a single particular location. Nevertheless, continuous supervision is important for soil remediation. Often, multiple remediation techniques are more effective compared to just one.

Tackling PFAS in water: Effective treatment solutions

Pfas Treatment Solutions

The issues associated with contaminated water supply sources. Let’s Discover the effective treatment solutions for PFAS in water:

  • Activated carbon filtration

PFACS contaminants are efficiently removed through the activated carbons filtering process. This is done by passing filtered water through beds of porous carbon. It’s generally utilized in water treatment. This approach is frequently applied in water treatment where sorbent is feasible.

  • Ion exchange

Ion exchange utilizes resins. The purpose is to substitute PFAS ions in water with other ions and eliminate PFAS from water.

  • Mosis

This uses semi-permeable membranes. It takes away the PFAS and other impurities from water selectively. It treats both surface water and groundwater and is commonly used in water treatment plants.

  • Coagulation/Flocculation

In coagulation/flocculation, chemicals are added to water. It promotes particle clumping. It also provides a basis for sedimentation and filtration of PFASs. The application of this approach includes drinking water and industrial wastewater treatment.

  • Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)

Oxidation is used in chemical processes to convert PFAS molecules into less hazardous products. Remedial methods involve advanced oxidation processes (AOPs).

  • Biological treatment

In biological treatment, microbes break down PFAS in water. The process removes PFAS through biological mechanisms. However, natural treatment addresses only some PFAS compounds in a particular type of environment. In some instances, this technique is more eco-friendly.

However, there are ways to treat PFAS in the water. Nevertheless, every remedy has distinctive advantages and disadvantages. Best practice requires consideration of local or site-specific conditions. Water remediation requires constant supervision. In complex cases, several treatment processes may be used for a complete cleanup.

At John F Hunt Regeneration, we understand the importance of clean and safe water for your community. That’s why we offer cutting-edge water treatment technology and systems to effectively remove PFAS and other contaminants from your water supply. Our team of experts is dedicated to providing sustainable solutions that prioritise the health and well-being of your community. We are committed to delivering safe, reliable, and sustainable groundwater remediation solutions that safeguard public health and environmental integrity.

Learn more about our water treatment technology services.

The development of cutting-edge solutions for the treatment of PFAS

These innovations paved the way for progression in science and technology. Modern practices seek to combat these issues associated with recalcitrant pollutants. Innovative methods for PFAS water remediation are explored in this section:

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs)

The high-energy hydroxyl radical from AOPs degrades PFAS molecules through an oxidation process. The technique works well for many PFAS compounds in water and can be used in situ and ex-situ.

Electrochemical treatment

Electrochemical treatment exploits electric-powered activities to promote the desorption of PFAS from water.

Nanomaterial-based filtration

Adsorption utilizes adsorbents such as nanomaterial filtrations and activated carbon or metal-organic framework filters (MOF). The technique works with several PFAS chemicals and provides a flexible and adjustable mode of therapy.

Membrane technologies

For removal of the PFAS, advanced membranes such as reverse osmosis or nanofiltration, which depend on size and charge differences, are used. This approach works well with many PFAS compounds, including wastewater treatment plants and industries.

Biological treatment

Biological treatment involves breaking down PFAS compounds in water using bacterial enzymes for decomposition. It is an environmentally sustainable way.

The innovative solutions in treating PFAS create room for advancement. There are pros and cons associated with each method. Combining various innovative approaches offers the potential to handle PFAS pollution.

Ways of reducing PFAS exposure in the UK

New PFAS destruction methods can help the UK reduce PFAS exposure and mitigate contaminants’ persistence in the atmosphere, soils, sediments, and biota. These innovative methods offer a more comprehensive solution for PFAS compound destruction, including:

  • Peroxidation-activated carbon treatment
  • Plasma-based destruction
  • Advanced hydrothermal oxidation
  • Enzymatic degradation

The future of PFAS treatment

Treatment of PFAS may seem promising, but there are other, more advanced techniques for coping with the issues around PFAS pollution. The trendy PFAS treatment is developing new scientific evolutions and numerous innovations.

PFAS remediation is dependent on practical treatment approaches. It is essential to understand how to move around regulatory frameworks when dealing with PFAS contamination. The site-specific considerations required include the type of contamination as well as the statutory regulations involved concerning PFAS remediation. It is necessary for researchers to work together with regulatory agencies as well as with the participating industries to overcome problems and advance remedial efforts.

An overview of significant summary points of PFAS remediation methods

For remediation of PFAS, one should appreciate their complexity. Suitable treatments must be used for the accomplishment of successful remediation. Besides, dealing with regulatory hurdles also involves the management of PFAS contamination. Here are the main takeaways on PFAS remediation: A combination of holistic and site-specific approaches will enable effective PFAS remediation. Therefore, it encompasses the consideration of the type of pollution, regulation factors involved, and available technology. To tackle these problems and enhance the remediation efforts, regulatory authorities, research teams, and industry agents should work together.